above, for articles in
Hammarskjöld was one of the delegates that
established the Marshall Plan in post WWII Europe. He was also a prior
Chairman of the Bank of Sweden during the Second World War years. Over the
following years he served in various political capacities, culminating in
his appointment as Chairman of the Swedish delegation to the United
Nations's General Assembly in 1952. He was elected as the second UN General
Secretary in 1953, and re-elected to a secondt term in 1957.
In 1961, while on an emergency peace
keeping trip to the Congo, an explosion on the airplane that he
was on, led to his untimely death in Rhodesia (present day Zambia).
Dag Hammarskjöld was a fierce
advocate for ending colonial rule and for the establishment of independent
African states. In 1998, the South African Bishop Desmond Tutu, Chairman
of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, revealed that documents
recently uncovered had established that a collaboration among British
Intelligence (MI5), the CIA, and South African Intelligence services, had led to
the 1961 crash of Dag Hammarskjöld's plane.
Dag Hammarskjöld remains to this
day, one of the most significant Statesmen of the 20th century, and
without a doubt, the greatest Secretary-General the United Nations has ever
had. He was selected as the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in
Acceptance Speech for the Nobel
Acceptance by Rolf Edberg, Swedish
Ambassador to Norway, on the occasion of the award of the Nobel Peace Prize in
Oslo, December 10, 1961
It is with infinite sadness that I
have received, at the request of the administrators of the estate of Dag
Hammarskjöld, the prize for the year 1961 awarded posthumously to a friend and
How thankful I should be if I could
present to you what he himself would have thought and said, were he standing
Surely he would have seen it as
symbolic to be called to this stage - where so much human goodwill has been
honoured - along with the South African advocate of nonviolent liberation: two
men of different origin and with different starting points, but both striving
toward the same goal.
My compatriot was much concerned
with the awakening and fermenting continent which was to become his destiny. He
once said that the next decade must belong to Africa or to the atom bomb. He
firmly believed that the new countries have an important mission to fulfill in
the community of nations. He therefore invested all his strength of will, and at
the end more than that, to smooth their road toward the future.
Africa was to be the great test for
the philosophy he wished to see brought to life through the United Nations.
Time and again he recurred to the
indissoluble connection between peace and human rights. Tolerance, protection by
law, equal political rights, and equal economic opportunities for all citizens -
were prerequisites for a harmonious life within a nation. They also became
requirements for such a life among nations.
He would remind us how man once
organized himself in families, how families joined together in tribes and
villages, and how tribes and villages developed into peoples and nations. But
the nation could not be the end of such development. In the Charter of the
United Nations he saw a guide to what he called an organized international
With an intensity that grew stronger
each year, he stressed in his annual reports to the General Assembly that the
United Nations had to be shaped into a dynamic instrument in the service of
development. In his last report, in a tone of voice penetrating because of its
very restraint, he confronted those member states which were clinging to
philosophy of sovereign national states in armed competition, of which the most
that may be expected is that they achieve a peaceful coexistence"
This philosophy did not meet the
needs of a world of ever increasing interdependence, where nations have at their
disposal armaments of hitherto unknown destructive strength. The United Nations
must open up ways to more developed forms of international
He dated this report August 17 of
this year. It now stands as a last testament.
He found the words of the Charter
concerning equal rights for all nations, large and small, filled with life and
significance. Above all, it was the small nations, and especially the developing
countries, which needed the United Nations for their protection and their
future. This was why he refused to step down and to throw the organization to
the winds when one of the large nations demanded his resignation (2).
It was impossible to witness that
scene at the stormy session of last year's General Assembly without recalling
some words that he once wrote about his own father. "A man of firm convictions does
not ask, and does not receive, understanding from those with whom he comes into
he wrote about Hjalmar Hammarskjöld. "A mature man is his own judge. In
the end, his only firm support is being faithful to his own
How aptly these words applied to
himself when he rose unhesitatingly to defend the idea of a truly international
body of civil servants or to uphold the principles of the Charter in the Congo
If he felt any uneasiness, then it
was because questions dealing with the peace and welfare of peoples were being
treated in an overheated atmosphere. And an eyewitness, looking at him sitting
there, deeply serious, with the fingers of his right hand against his cheek, as
they always were when he was listening intently, might find himself asking this
question: What does he represent, that slender man up there behind the green
marble desk? A tradition of polished quiet diplomacy doomed to drown in the
rising tide of new clamor? Or is he, with his visions of a world community, a
herald of the future?
The latter is what we would like to
believe. He himself had no doubt about the convincing force of his ideals. He
expressed it thus in the last article that he wrote: "Setbacks in trying to realize the
ideal do not prove that the ideal is at fault."
Such a conviction must be based on a
determined philosophy of life. No one who met him could help noticing that he
had a room of quiet within himself (5).
Probably no one was ever able really to reach into that room.
But perhaps we can think that he
found something that was essential to himself in the last book that he was
engaged in translating, the powerful work Ich und Du [I and Thou], in
which the Jewish philosopher Martin Buber (6)
sets forth his belief that all real living is meeting. He himself believed that
there were invisible bridges on which people could meet as human beings above
the confines of ideologies, races, and nations.
And perhaps we may dare to see
something significant in the obscurity and seeming futility of what happened on
that African September night. Scattered about in the debris of the airplane were
some books. Among them was Ich und Du, with some pages just translated
into Swedish. Just before the plane took off on its nocturnal flight, he had
left behind with a friend Thomas à Kempis' Imitation of Christ
Tucked in the pages was the oath of office of the Secretary-General:
"I, Dag Hammarskjöld, solemnly
swear to exercise in all loyalty, discretion and conscience the functions
entrusted to me as Secretary-General of the United Nations, to discharge
these functions and regulate my conduct with the interest of the United
Nations only in view..."
Had he stood here today, he would, I
believe, have had something to say about service as a self-evident
My fellow countryman became a
citizen of the world. He was regarded as such by the people from whom he came.
But on that cool autumn day of falling leaves when he was brought back to the
Uppsala of his youth, he was ours again, he was back home. Shyly he had guarded
his inner world, but at that moment the distance disappeared and we felt that he
came very close to us.
Therefore, I can speak on behalf of
an entire people when I submit our respectful thanks for the honor that has been
bestowed today upon our fellow citizen, the greatest honor a man can have. The
Peace Prize awarded to Dag Hammarskjöld will constitute a fund which will bear
his name and which will be used for a purpose that was close to his
1. Introduction to the Annual Report 1960-1961 in Foote, Servant
of Peace, p. 355.
2. The Soviet Union, criticizing Hammarskjöld's actions in the Congo and
charging him with bias, suggested in the UN General Assembly on September 23,
1960, that the office of secretary-general be replaced by a committee of three,
and on October 3, 1960, repeating the charges, called for Hammarskjöld's
resignation. For Hammarskjöld's replies, including his refusal to resign, see
Foote, op. cit., pp. 314-319.
3. From his inaugural address to the Swedish Academy, December 20, 1954,
when he took the seat left vacant by his father's death. Foote, op. cit.,
4. Ibid., p. 76.
5. Probably a reference to the UN Meditation Room (located off the public
lobby of the General Assembly Hall), which the laureate designed, and to the
inscription on its black marble plaque, which he wrote: "This Is A Room Devoted To Peace
And Those Who Are Giving Their Lives For Peace. It Is A Room Of Quiet Where Only
Thoughts Should Speak." Hammarskjöld also wrote the text of the
leaflet given to visitors. Its first sentence reads: "We all have within us a center of
stillness surrounded by silence."
6. Martin Buber (1878-1965), Austrian-born philosopher, writer, and Judaic
scholar; after exile from Germany (1938), a professor at Hebrew University in
7. Thomas à Kempis (c. 1380-1471), German Augustinian canon and
Source: Les Prix Nobel,
1961, original speech in Swedish. In the public domain.
UN Tribute to Dag
Letters Say Hammarskjold
Death Western Plot
> Friendship needs no words — it is solitude delivered from the anguish of
> God does not die on the day when we cease to believe in a personal
deity, but we die on the day when our lives cease to be illumined by the steady
radiance, renewed daily, of a wonder, the source of which is beyond all
> I don't know Who— or what— put the question, I don't know when it was
put. I don't even remember answering. But at some moment I did answer Yes to
Someone— or Something— and from that hour I was certain that existence is
meaningful and that, therefore, my life, in self-surrender, had a
> It is in playing safe that we create a world of utmost
Pray that your loneliness may spur you into finding
something to live for, great enough to die for.
> Life only demands from you the strength you possess. Only one feat is
possible— not to have run away.
> Never look down to test the ground before taking your next step; only he
who keeps his eye fixed on the far horizon will find his right road.
> Never measure the height of a mountain until you have reached the top.
Then you will see how low it was.
> Never, "for the sake of peace and quiet," deny your own experience or
Posted December 08,
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